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●natal tooth(出生牙) & neonatal tooth(新生儿牙)   

2009-10-28 12:58:30|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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分类:矫正知识

定义:Natal teeth (出生牙)are teeth that are already present at the time of birth(一出生就已存在的牙齿). They are different than neonatal teeth(新生儿牙), which grow in during the first 30 days after birth(出生30天内长出的牙齿)

 

considerations(考虑):

Natal teeth are relatively uncommon, appearing in about one in every 2,000 to 3,000 births. Although most natal teeth are isolated incidents, their presence may be associated with certain medical syndrome.

Natal teeth generally develop on the lower gum where the central incisor teeth will appear. They have little root structure and are attached to the end of the gum by soft tissue and are often wobbly.

Natal teeth are usually not well formed but they are firm enough that, because of their placement, they may cause irritation and injury to the infant's tongue when nursing. Natal teeth may also be uncomfortable for a nursing mother.

Frequently, natal teeth are removed shortly after birth while the newborn infant is still in the hospital, especially if the tooth is loose and the child runs a risk of aspiration, or "breathing in" the tooth.

neonatal tooth(字典的定义)

A tooth erupting up to 30 days after birth. (刚出生30天内所见的牙齿通称之)~~看一下一周大的婴儿的neonatal tooth

宝宝一出生即有牙齿,称为胎生齿(natal teeth),若是出生没有牙齿,在满月前长牙,则称为新生儿齿(neonatal teeth)。发生胎生齿的机率为:一千名新生婴儿可能会有一位有胎生齿;胎生齿发生的位置大多为下排2颗正中门齿,在有胎生齿或是新生儿齿的幼儿中,大约有15%~20%可以发现家人也有同样的情形,只有在少数的情况下,胎生齿的发生与某些症候群或疾病有关。

不论是胎生齿或是新生儿齿,一般他们都是由牙龈边缘长出,较少有牙根,除非太松动,不然这些牙齿并不是那么容易会脱落,进而造成呛入,所以,多数并不需要拔除。如果宝宝的牙齿真的摇摇欲坠,可以请专业的儿童牙医师仔细检查评估并拔除,以避免造成组织的伤害和出血。

少数新生儿在一生下来就长牙,古代称这种牙齿为「鬼牙」,传说长「鬼牙」的婴儿会克母亲、带来厄运;台北医学院附设医院儿童牙科主任刘居平表示,之所以会有这种无稽之谈,主要是过去时代母亲是以哺乳为主,而鬼牙会咬痛妈妈,甚至于造成乳头受伤等不适症状,才有这类传说。

其实「鬼牙」在牙科医学上称为「新生牙」(Neonatal tooth),形成原因不明,绝大多数新生牙是过早萌出的乳牙,而不是多出来的牙齿,因此,一般牙医师并不做特别处理,以免影响日后恒齿的生长,

除非有以下三种困扰才考虑拔除:

1.新生牙会磨到婴儿舌根,导致舌下黏膜溃烂;

2.新生牙动摇不稳,怕脱落婴儿吞入,造成气道阻塞;

3.妈妈喂母乳会被新生牙咬伤,造成乳头疼痛或发炎。若没有这些障碍的话,医师通常不建议拔除,否则拔掉「鬼牙」后就没有这颗乳牙,孩子可能要缺牙到四、五岁了

 

 

Our daughter had a tooth when she was born(女儿一出生就长出牙齿). The doctor called it a milk tooth(乳牙), and eventually the tooth fell out(最后牙齿脱落). Now her baby teeth have come in with a gap where her milk tooth used to be(再次的长出新的乳牙). Will this gap remain when her adult teeth come in, or will a tooth replace it?

 

Occasionally a child is born with teeth. Teeth can also erupt early -- within the first 30 days of life. These are called natal teeth and neonatal teeth, respectively.

(偶尔小孩在出生的时候就会出现牙齿,在出生的生命开始的前30天内萌发出来,这种情形统称为新生儿牙)

Most commonly, there are only one or two natal/neonatal teeth in the lower anterior area, although more can be present in other areas of the mouth. The presence of natal or neonatal teeth in the posterior region is not common and may be associated with systemic conditions or syndromes.

(一般的情况是,会在下颚前牙区看到1或2颗的新生儿牙,虽然有的也会出现在口腔中的其它地方,但出现在后牙区的情况较罕见,可能的情况是与系统性疾病或征候群一起出现Jadassohn-Lewandowsky-syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Hallermann-Streiff syndrome)

These teeth are usually the normal primary incisor teeth erupting early. Due to this early eruption, the tooth will not be fully developed. While the majority of the crown will be formed, the root structure is not normally present; therefore, a natal or neonatal tooth will be mobile.

(这些早期萌出的牙齿通常会像乳切牙一样的萌出,由于这样早期的萌出,牙齿的发育并不是很完好,因此,新生儿牙基本上是浮动的)

If the mobility is not too severe, the tooth may become firm on its own and can be left alone. Excessive mobility may lead to exfoliation of the tooth, as in your daughter's case. If the tooth is excessively mobile and has not exfoliated, parents should consider having the tooth extracted to avoid aspiration or ingestion of the tooth. If the tooth is extracted, care needs to be exercised to extract the entire tooth.

(假若摇动度不是挺严重的,这种牙齿会稳固的存在于原地,大的摇动度会导致牙齿的脱落,如同您女儿的那种情况,假使牙齿是大的摇动度,但没有脱落,家长必须思考将牙齿拔掉,以避免牙齿被吸入或是吞入,假使牙齿被拔掉,必须小心注意要整颗都拔除)

If only the crown is extracted with pulpal tissue (nerve and blood vessels present in the tooth) left behind, dentin (the layer of tooth structure underneath the enamel) and root structure may subsequently form. If this occurs, root removal may be required in the future.

(一旦牙冠部被拔除并带有牙髓(含有神经与血管在中),象牙质和牙根的结构顺利的形成,如果这样的情况发生,牙根的移除在未来是必要的)

Because natal and neonatal teeth are usually normal primary teeth, a new primary tooth will not replace them once they are lost. In the anterior region of the mouth, this premature loss of the primary tooth does not typically result in problems with the permanent teeth. In the posterior region, maintenance of space for the permanent teeth to erupt normally should be considered

(因为新生儿牙通常是属于正常的乳牙,假若正常的乳牙不存在的话,是没法来替代的,在口腔中的前牙区,这样的先期掉乳牙并不见得会导致产生恒牙的问题,在后牙地段,恒牙萌出空间的保持必须妥善的考虑)

以下的paper(文献)可以来说明新生儿牙的情况

natal &neonatal teeth (这里面有图)

发生率:1:700 - 1:30,000 ,以女生较多发,好发生在下颚前牙区

病因学:以遗传的可能最高Environmental factors(环境因素以多氯联苯最常见, especially polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

Extraction during the first days of life seems to be atraumatic(有学者指出在一出生就拔除是不具损伤性的)

Indications for extraction include hypermobility, difficulties during breast-feeding, traumatic ulcerations on tongue/frenulum/lip (Riga-Fede's disease), inflammation, etc..(拔牙的适应症包括摇动度大,哺乳困难,舌头/系带/唇的损伤性溃疡,发炎)→Riga-fede's disease(natal tooth)图片

Development of baby teeth (乳牙的发育)

Development of permanent teeth (恒牙的发育)

Tooth anatomy (牙齿解剖)

牙胚的组织学图像

Natal and neonatal teeth : A report of four cases

Unusual neonatal tooth in maxillary 1 st molar region: A case report

Sublingual traumatic ulceration due to neonatal teeth (Riga-Fede disease)

Residual Neonatal Teeth: A Case Report

ABNORMALITIES OF TEETH(dr.王文岑) 

Abnormalities of the Teeth(哥大Steven Chussid D.D.S)精典多图

Developmental Alterations of Teeth(非常优质的power points教学片,内有大量图片)

Interruption of Breast Feeding Caused by the Presence of Neonatal Teeth

94 年第一次专门职业及技术人员高等考试试题(牙医师)第43 /44题

九十三年第一次专门职业及技术人员高等暨普通考试医事人员考试(牙医师)第39题

九十二年第二次专门职业及技术人员高等暨普通考试医事人员考试(牙医师)第9题

 

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