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@periodontal abscess(牙周膿腫)  

2011-04-02 09:30:07|  分类: 一般牙科的相关文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Periodontal Disease Index (PDI): an index used for estimating the degree of periodontal disease based on the measurement of six representative teeth for gingival inflammation, pocket depth, calculus and plaque, attrition, mobility, and lack of contact.

Types of Periodontal Disease

.
. Gingivitis .
. Chronic Periodontitis .
. Aggressive Periodontitis .
. Periodontitis Caused by Conditions of the Body .
. Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases

 

*Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease - PowerPoint Presentation

* Bacteria Associated with Periodontal Diseases

* The Importance of Bacteria in Periodontal Disease

Oral bacteria include streptococci, lactobacilli, staphylococci, corynebacteria, and various anaerobes in particular bacteroides. The oral cavity of the new-born baby does not contain bacteria but rapidly becomes colonized with bacteria such as Streptococcus salivarius. With the appearance of the teeth during the first year colonization by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis occurs as these organisms colonise the dental surface and gingiva. Other strains of streptococci adhere strongly to the gums and cheeks but not to the teeth. The gingival crevice area (supporting structures of the teeth) provides a habitat for a variety of anaerobic species. Bacteroides and spirochetes colonize the mouth around puberty

 

Treponema denticola

The levels of oral spirochetes are elevated in patients with periodontal diseases. Among this group, Treponema denticola is the most studied and is considered as one of the main etiological bacteria of periodontitis. Treponema denticola is a motile and highly proteolytic bacterium

Fusospirochetes

Spirochetes and fusi-form bacilli live as normal flora in the mouth, but in the case of bleeding in the oral cavity, the bacteria can cause infection and diseases to oral cavity: 1/ Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) 2/ Vincent angina with a membrane covering the throat area

Veillonella

Veillonella are gram-negative anaerobic cocci. It is thought that this species thrives in the acidic environment of caries and is thought to slow the development of dental caries. It converts the acidic products of other species to less acidic products

Porphyromonas gingivalis

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe strongly associated with chronic adult periodontitis. The bacterium produces a number of well-characterized virulence factors and can be manipulated genetically. The availability of the genome sequence is aiding our understanding of the biology of P. gingivalis and how it interacts with the environment, other bacteria and the human host

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans(A.A菌)

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is considered an oral pathogen due to its virulence factors, its association with localized aggressive periodontitis in young adolescents, and studies indicating that it can cause bone loss

Lactobacillus

Some Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries although these bacteria are normally symbiotic in humans and are found in the gut flora

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